Adviser awareness about cybersecurity has increased substantially over the past two years, and most firms have either established or are in the process of establishing written policies and procedures for protecting investor information, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority noted Wednesday in a report detailing findings from a recent self-examination.
But Finra still named cybersecurity as a major threat facing broker-dealers. Even the most robust cybersecurity programs can be compromised when an employee opens a malicious email attachment. Finra said these kind of attacks—known as phishing or spearphishing attacks—were among those most commonly observed in 2016 and 2017.
Other common attacks included ransomware attacks, which hold a computer's data hostage for a payment (usually in bitcoin) and fraudulent third-party wire transfers that use stolen consumer or adviser credentials.
Sayer Martin, the chief operations officer and co-technology officer of Orchestrate, which provides automated workflow tools within Salesforce for advisers, said none of these threats are new. The fact that they remain common problems underscores that firms are either not putting policies in place, or that people aren't following the policies.
"There is still work to do, but not necessarily on the understanding side. This is on the implementation side," Mr. Martin said. These attacks, commonly called "social hacks," can be defended against by changing passwords and protecting mobile devices.
Finra said firms can do a better job of addressing access management. This pertains to systems to log, monitor and supervise employee activity to better detect anomalies. Warning signs include performing unauthorized work during off-hours or logging in from unfamiliar locations. The report also said advisers should shut off departing employees' access to digital systems on a timelier basis.
Other common deficiencies included a lack of formal processes for conducting ongoing risk assessments or reviewing technology vendors' cybersecurity credentials. Finra observed that some small- and medium-sized firms didn't segregate cybersecurity responsibilities, instead leaving other employees to take care of them.
Mr. Martin said that in addition to training employees on safe practices, clearly describing responsibilities can help hold people accountable if there is a breach. When firms—especially smaller businesses without the resources for expensive technology—realize that cybersecurity weakness starts with people, they can improve safety.
"Having systems is important, and don't get me wrong it's extremely important, but when I look through this [report], the biggest issue is people," Mr. Martin said.
Though larger firms have the resources to purchase sophisticated tools, Finra found that implementation of those tools could be improved.
Finra also reported that branch offices typically facer greater challenges in managing effective passwords, implementing patches and software updates, maintaining anti-virus software, encrypting data and reporting data breach incidents.
MORE TO DO
Mr. Martin said the report was comprehensive in identifying the weaknesses, but fell short in providing a set of best practices for firms to adopt. He added that small firms especially could benefit from a blueprint of Finra recommendations.
The report marked the first time Finra released a summary of its examination findings, which also included observations about product suitability, outside business activities, best execution and alternative investments held in individual retirement accounts.
The organization said in a prepared statement that the report was intended to help firms "improve their compliance functions based on the experiences of other firms and better anticipate and address potential areas of concern well before their own cycle examinations."
Finra declined a request to comment further on the report.